Researchers have developed a blood test able to detect more than 50 types of cancer that is accurate enough to be used nationally as a multi-cancer screening test in those at higher risk of the disease, including those aged over 50 with no symptoms.

The test involves taking a sample of blood from each patient and analysing it for DNA, known as cell-free DNA (cfDNA), shed by tumours (and other cells) into the blood. Genomic sequencing is used to detect chemical changes to the DNA (methylation) that control gene expression, and a classifier developed with machine learning (artificial intelligence) uses these results to detect abnormal methylation patterns that indicate the presence of cancer.

The third and final sub-study of the Circulating Cell-free Genome Atlas (CCGA) study, published in the Annals of Oncology, investigated the performance of the test in 2,823 people already diagnosed with cancer and 1,254 people without cancer.

The findings show that the test was able to detect cancer signals from more than 50 different types of cancer across all four cancer stages (I, II, III, IV), correctly identifying when cancer was present in 51.5% of cases. The test’s specificity was 99.5%, thus showing that it wrongly detected cancer in just 0.5% of cases.

According to the data, sensitivity of the test was 67.6% overall across stages I-III in 12 pre-specified cancers that account for two-thirds of cancer deaths in the US annually (anal, bladder, bowel, oesophageal, stomach, head and neck, liver and bile duct, lung, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, lymphoma and cancers of white blood cells such as multiple myeloma), and 40.7% overall in more than 50 cancers.

For all cancers, detection improved with each later cancer stage with a sensitivity rate of 16.8% at the early stage I, 40.4% at stage II, 77% at stage III and 90.1% at stage IV.

Research also showed that sensitivity varied by type of cancer; in solid tumours that do not have any screening options – such as oesophageal, liver and pancreatic cancers – overall sensitivity of the test was twice that for solid tumours that do have screening options, such as breast, bowel, cervical and prostate cancers: 65.6% compared to 33.7%. Overall sensitivity in cancers of the blood, such as lymphoma and myeloma, was 55.1%.

The test correctly also identified the tissue in which the cancer was located in the body in 88.7% of cases, the researchers said.

“These data add to a growing body of literature that supports the use of next-generation sequencing for the detection of cell-free DNA in blood samples as a tool for earlier detection of common cancers that account for a significant number of deaths and other health problems worldwide,” said first author of the paper, Dr Eric Klein, chairman of the Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, US.

“In addition, a screening test that requires only a simple blood draw could provide an option for communities that have poor access to medical facilities. I’m excited about the potential impact this approach will have on public health.”

Reference:
https://www.pharmatimes.com/news/blood_test_can_detect_more_than_50_types_of_cancer_1372224

More News
2022 | How the pharma industry is shaping up for the future
News · 17/01/2022

Given the evolving on-ground situation and newer variant-led infections, the pandemic is far from over. In such a scenario, for businesses to stay relevant, we will need to be flexible and more adaptable to the changes that need to be embraced to keep core business growth drivers resilient.

READ MORE
2022 | Chemical & Renewable Energy Industry Outlook
News · 06/12/2021

As the chemical industry moves into 2022, strong demand for both commodity and specialty chemicals should keep prices robust throughout the year. The industry could face margin pressures amid raw material cost inflation, which will likely remain high through the first half of 2022.

READ MORE
China’s strategic power cuts & “green” Winter Olympics 2022
News · 05/12/2021

Blackouts and power cuts in the world’s second-largest economy have drawn attention to fuel supply problems that could complicate the country’s pandemic recovery.

READ MORE
FIEO urges govt to provide freight support to all exports including pharmaceuticals till March 2022
News · 22/11/2021

The Federation of Indian Export Organizations (FIEO), an apex body of Indian export promotion organizations, has urged the government to provide freight support to all exports including pharmaceuticals till 31st March 2022, as freight rates have skyrocketed and are likely to somber by March 2022.

READ MORE
World’s First Pig Kidney Transplant Into Human Successfully Completed
News · 02/11/2021

Science keeps winning! Scientists recently transplanted a pig’s kidney into a human being without immediate rejection by the immune system.

READ MORE
WHO approves first Malaria vaccine developed by GlaxoSmithKline for children
News · 02/11/2021

In a landmark announcement, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of the first-ever malaria vaccine for children. WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus endorsed the RTS,S/AS01 malaria or Mosquirix – a vaccine developed by British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline (GSK).

READ MORE
Power squeeze curbs Chinese growth, leaves Europe in a gas bind
News · 02/11/2021

China’s power shortages hit growth in the world’s second-biggest economy, threatening more pain for global supply chains, while Europe’s gas squeeze looked set to continue as Russia’s Gazprom showed no sign of hiking exports to the region in October.

READ MORE
Generic Agrochemicals in India Poised for a Bonanza: 22 Molecules Coming Off Patent by 2030
News · 04/10/2021

The fact that 22 such molecules are going to come out of their patent period will substantially expand the offerings of the Indian companies to people at home and abroad alike and may help fetch extra revenue.

READ MORE
SARS-CoV-2 is not a direct food safety concern… Neither food nor food packaging is a pathway for the spread of COVID-19, says FAO
News · 04/10/2021

“Current data indicates that neither food nor food packaging is a pathway for the spread of viruses causing respiratory illnesses, including SARS-CoV-2,” according to a new guidance document from the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): “In other words, SARS-CoV-2 is not a direct food safety concern.”

READ MORE